By Steve Rayner (auth.), Branden B. Johnson, Vincent T. Covello (eds.)
The Social and Cultural building of probability: concerns, equipment, and Case stories Vincent T. Covello and Branden B. Johnson dangers to healthiness, protection, and the surroundings abound on the planet and other people cope as most sensible they could. yet earlier than motion should be taken to manage, lessen, or do away with those hazards, judgements needs to be made approximately which hazards are very important and which hazards can adequately be missed. The problem for choice makers is that consensus on those concerns is usually missing. hazards believed by means of a few contributors and teams to be tolerable or settle for capable - comparable to the dangers of nuclear strength or commercial pollution - are insupportable and unacceptable to others. This ebook addresses this factor through exploring how specific technological hazards turn out to be chosen for societal recognition and motion. each one element of the amount examines, from a distinct viewpoint, how participants, teams, groups, and societies make a decision what's dicy, how dicy it truly is, and what may be performed. The writing of this e-book used to be encouraged via one other booklet: hazard and tradition: An Essay at the number of Technoloqical and Environmental hazards. released in 1982 and written by way of exclusive students - Mary Douglas, a British social anthropologist, and Aaron Wildavsky, an American political scientist - the e-book obtained vast severe cognizance and provided a number of provocative principles at the nature of threat choice, notion, and acceptance.
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Additional info for The Social and Cultural Construction of Risk: Essays on Risk Selection and Perception
A small, uncharged chemical, TCE is readily absorbed through the skin, digestive tract, and lungs. Immediate health effects of TCE in humans are primarily manifested in the central nervous system and, depending on the amount of exposure, range from headaches and incoordination to unconsciousness and death. Other acute effects in humans include liver and kidney damage, irregularities in heart rhythm, and skin irritation. 2 Trichloroethylene was identified as an animal carcinogen by the National Cancer Institute in 1976.
However, water bills did subsequently increase, in part to cover the higher cost of treatment of river water. Throughout the period, no one in the community had to continue to use drinking water that was known to be contaminated with TCE, and those few households that. knowingly continued to drink water with TCE in it did so by their own choice. Additionally, there was no water shortage resulting from the Risk Perception in Community Context: A Case Study 39 closing of the contaminated city wells or the filtration of contaminated private wells.
In Measuring Culture (Gross and Rayner 1985) we have attempted to provide a general model for this kind of analysis. We have advocated rendering diverse social organizations as mathematically modeled social units. Second, we have applied polythetic scales to the measurement of the multiple-hierarchy (grid) and social-network (group) aspects of that model in order that measurements made in this way can be 22 Chapter 1 replicated by different researchers. This is significant both because the ability to make some consistent measurements is an important feature of clinical consultancy as contrasted with total environmental assessment and because it establishes the empirical basis for falsifying grid/group analysis.