Capital Cities of Arab Islam by Philip K. Hitti

By Philip K. Hitti

Professor Hitti, the prestigious authority at the Islamic global, perspectives the highlights of Arab heritage in the course of the home windows of the capital towns the place these occasions happened. The account makes a speciality of six towns -- Mecca, the non secular capital; Medina, the caliphal capital; Damascus, the imperial capital; Baghdad, the highbrow capital; Cairo, the dissident capital; and Cordova, the eu capital. The technique is old instead of geographical, and the e-book is addressed to the scholar and the aesthetic layman instead of the expert. travelers to the center East and Spain will also locate the ebook specially attention-grabbing. the writer describes the actual settings of the towns, the first occupations of the folk, and the numerous enormous constructions. He discusses such sleek background of a urban as is suitable to the tale, however the emphasis is at the interval of Arab ascendancy -- approximately, the 7th to the 13th century. as well as Arabic resources, he costs Europeans' descriptions the place acceptable (such descriptions are infrequent simply because Europeans weren't allowed in such towns as Mecca and Medina). As he makes transparent, the six towns have been greater than capitals; they left their indelible imprint not just at the next background of the Arabs and different Moslems yet at the improvement of civilization at huge.

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3 The effect thereof is manifest in the city and shall so continue to the day of resurrection. Indeed men's hearts have not ceased to turn toward the city from distant lands and remote regions. The road to it has been the meeting place of those coming and going from among the recipients of the noble message [of Islam]. Fruits from all lands are brought there too, making it the most favored territory in fruits, utilities, revenue, and trade. Even if Mecca had no source of income other than the pilgrim season, it would suffice.

The hero was Khalid ibn-al-Walid. His first major victory was over the Byzantine capital Damascus. The city opened its gates to the besiegers in September 635 after a siege shortened to six months by negotiated agreement on the part of its native bishop and its state treasurer, the father of St. John Damascene, the last great hymnologist and theologian of the Eastern Syrian Church. The second victory worthy of note was also scored by Khalid. It took place eleven months later at the Yarmuk, an eastern tributary of the Jordan River.

The JewishArabian problem was solved. " That made them sharers with Moslems of the privilege of being depositories of revealed scriptures, with the difference that the Koran was in perspicuous Arabic (6:59; 16:105; 26:29; 43:1-2). Muhammad thereby gained for his new religion old-age respectability. Throughout the pre-hijrah period, the relations between the two parties were cordial, both agreeing on the fundamentals of belief. But it was not long after Muhammad's landing in Medina before his hopes of integrating the local Jews into his community were clashed.

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