By E. Feldman, R. Nelson
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Additional info for Canine and Feline Endocrinology and Reproduction
Cellular dehydration) created by a given solute, which would depend on the permeability characteristics unique to the osmoreceptor cell membrane. Cellular dehydration occurs when extracellular fluid osmolality is increased by a solute that cannot penetrate cell membranes. This causes water to be withdrawn from cells in an effort to equilibrate the osmotic gradient that is formed. Cellular dehydration, in turn, provides the signal for secretion of vasopressin and consumption of water. Studies indicate that an important role is also played by the blood-brain barrier, again suggesting unique permeability characteristics.
This list includes agents that either stimulate or inhibit AVP secretion, as well as substances that potentiate or inhibit the renal tubular response to AVP (Table 1-2; see Fig 1-4; Reeves et al, 1998). TABLE 1-2 DRUGS AND HORMONES REPORTED TO AFFECT VASOPRESSIN SECRETION OR ACTION SECRETION Stimulate AVP release Inhibit AVP release Acetylcholine α-Adrenergic drugs Anesthetic agents Atrial natriuretic peptide Angiotensin II Glucocorticoids Apomorphine Haloperidol β-Adrenergic drugs Oxilorphan Barbiturates Phenytoin Carbamazepine Promethazine Clofibrate Cyclophosphamide Histamine Insulin Metoclopramide Morphine and narcotic analogues Prostaglandin E2 Vincristine RENAL Potentiate AVP action Inhibit AVP action Aspirin α-Adrenergic drugs Carbamazepine Atrial natriuretic peptide Chlorpropamide Barbiturates Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents Demeclocycline Glucocorticoids Thiazides Hypercalcemia Hypokalemia Methoxyflurane Prostaglandin E2 Protein kinase C Tetracyclines Vinca alkaloids FIGURE 1-4 Effects of selected drugs and electrolytes on vaso- pressin release and action.
These animals often have dramatic elevations in BUN, which results from the obstruction and creates a marked osmotic diuresis once the obstruction is relieved. Postobstructive diuresis is self-limiting. The veterinarian, however, must be aware of this problem and maintain the animal’s hydration through aggressive fluid therapy, which can be slowly decreased over several days as the uremia clears and the osmotic diuresis declines. Vasopressin (antidiuretic hormone) deficiency Partial or complete lack of vasopressin production by the neurosecretory cells located in the supraoptic and paraventricular nuclei in the hypothalamus is called central diabetes insipidus (CDI).