Business and Law for the Shipmaster by Frederick Neville Hopkins

By Frederick Neville Hopkins

A latest accomplished reference overlaying registry, category, group concerns, carriage of passengers and items, marine coverage, hassle of legal responsibility, and masses extra.

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For the agricultural commodities, this imbalance is much smaller. International shipping is extremely dependent on the transportation of only a handful of commodities. The five most important commodities are all bulk commodities, liquid bulk and dry bulk. A summary of the seaborne trade commodity composition is given in Table 2. 3% of the ton-miles. This is exactly of the same order of magnitude as Figure 22 indicated for the 1986 situation. orgfordetailsonclassificationschemes 20 Part I - Shipping in the Global Economy Manufactures Fuelsand minerals Agricultural products 0% 10% 20% 30% %ofvalue 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% %ofTM Figure 22: Comparison of value of total export vs.

1 million GT, and consisted of 4,820 ships. 4% in number of ships. Spain went, like most of the other European countries through a major restructuring. The extensive government support during this post-oil crisis period has helped to maintain the current shipyard capacity and output. 5 million GT, and consisted of 3,420 ships. 8% in number of ships. The United Kingdom was during the steam era the foremost shipbuilding nation in the world. 4 million GT and more than 250 ships. The UK has not been able to restructure its merchant shipbuilding industry and in 2002 it almost stopped building merchant vessels.

Just like iron ore, coal has been growing fast after 2002. Each of the commodities accounts for around 800 million tons per year, with iron ore generating more ton-miles because of longer ALH. 2007 Coal(tonͲmiles) Figure 36: Development of coal shipments 1962-2007 (Fearnleys) Grain The seaborne trades in grains naturally follow seasonal variations in different parts of the world. The main source of unexpected trade flows often follow after crop failures. Grain trades are, therefore, sometimes quite unpredictable, yet generally follow a fairly stable pattern.

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