Bose-Einstein condensation of excitons and biexcitons by S. A. Moskalenko, D. W. Snoke

By S. A. Moskalenko, D. W. Snoke

Bose-Einstein condensation of excitons is a different impact within which the digital states of a superb can self-organize to procure quantum section coherence. The phenomenon is heavily associated with Bose-Einstein condensation in different structures reminiscent of liquid helium and laser-cooled atomic gases. protecting theoretical features in addition to contemporary experimental paintings, the publication offers a accomplished survey of the sector. After introducing the correct simple physics of excitons, the authors speak about exciton-phonon interactions in addition to the habit of biexcitons. in addition they conceal exciton phase-transitions and provides specific cognizance to nonlinear optical results together with the optical Stark influence and chaos in excitonic platforms. The thermodynamics of equilibrium, quasiequilibrium, and nonequilibrium structures are tested intimately. all through, the authors interweave theoretical and experimental effects. The e-book can be of significant curiosity to graduate scholars and researchers in semiconductor and superconductor physics, quantum optics, and atomic physics.

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This leads to an even greater wealth of possible structures. A hierarchical order can be established among different liquid crystal types according to their symmetries. Starting out with the invariance under all rotations and translations in the liquid phase, symmetries are broken one by one, and so, through the symmetries characteristic of the nematic, smectic A, smectic C, and smectic B phases, one finally arrives at the symmetries of crystals. At this point all that is left is invariance under discrete translations and discrete rotations.

This is exploited in a number of applications, for example in liquid crystal displays (LCDs). Smectic 11 liquid crystals come in several varieties. 6 shows the structure of two of these, A and C (SmA and SmC, or SA and SC ). Besides the alignment of the molecules, some kind of order is observed in the coordinates of the centers of mass, too, but only in one spatial direction. This means that molecules form layers. Within the layers, the arrangement of the molecular centers of mass is disordered, much in the same manner as in liquids, but their axes are along a preferred direction.

We shall just mention one, the smectic B (SmB or SB ) or hexatic phase. In this phase, shown in Fig. 7(a), the arrangement of the molecules in a smectic layer is such that each molecule is surrounded by six neighbors. No hexagonal crystalline structure is formed, however, since the centers of mass exhibit only short- and not long-range order within the layers. On the other hand, the axes of the hexagons are aligned over long distances, so long-range orientational order is observed. (a) (b) Fig.

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