By Anthony Charles Neville
This publication tackles an important unsolved challenge in developmental biology--how does chemistry create structure open air cells? The underlying speculation of this booklet is that the fibers are oriented by means of self-assembly simply outdoors the cells in the course of a cellular liquid crystalline part ahead of stabilization; the writer demonstrates that the most common orientations of the fibers are plywood laminates (orthogonal and helicoidal), and as parallel fibers. ultimately, he exhibits that those will be imitated within the laboratory via liquid crystalline chemical substances. Many high-quality pictures will reduction the initiated in spotting many of the forms of fibers.
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Extra info for Biology of Fibrous Composites: Development beyond the Cell Membrane
T. Diagram of crimping in the collagen fibrils of rat tails. A fibre containing several crimped fibrils is shown. These crimps permit extra extension of the fibre when strained. Redrawn from Nicholls et al. (1983). chitin microfibrils; this s i the basis of our two-system (Fig. 18) model for cuticle (Neville & Luke, 1969b). The direction of chitin in the day layers usually coincides with the axis of some major component, such as a leg femur or tibia, wing vein, or antenna. It functions to counteract bending stresses.
B) At a later stage, fibroblast cells invade and secrete additional layers which follow these same directions, as shcnun by Bard and Higginson (1977). fAch original ply thus comes lo contain several layers of collagen fibrils. 3 Helicoidal plywoods animals 39 Transmission electron micrographs of this orthogonal type of collagen scaffolding in human bone are given by Giraud-Guille (1988). 3k). 3q). 2j Large angles other than 90• Parallel fibres are oriented mutually at o·; orthogonal layers are oriented at 90°.
Having defined some principles and some types of architecture, we may next survey the distribution of fibrous composites in living systems. 2 The occurrence of fibrous composites This chapter presents a wide range of examples of fibrous com posites in animals and plants. A sensible amount of such 'stamp collecting' is justified because it shows the widespread distribu types) in biological systems. The presentation in this chapter is systematic (by taxonomic groups) rather than comparative, for ease of access.