By Siegfried Hofmann
To an individual who's attracted to floor chemical research of fabrics at the nanometer scale, this booklet is ready to provide applicable details. in keeping with ordinary program examples in fabrics technological know-how, a concise method of all points of quantitative research of surfaces and skinny movies with AES and XPS is supplied. ranging from simple ideas that are step-by-step constructed into virtually helpful equations, large assistance is given to graduate scholars in addition to to skilled researchers. Key chapters are these on quantitative floor research and on quantitative intensity profiling, together with contemporary advancements in issues corresponding to floor excitation parameter and backscattering correction issue. easy kinfolk are derived for emission and excitation attitude dependencies within the research of bulk fabric and of fractional nano-layer constructions, and for either gentle and tough surfaces. it really is proven easy methods to optimize the analytical process, signal-to-noise ratio, simple task and detection restrict. labored examples for quantification of alloys and of layer buildings in useful instances (e.g. infection, evaporation, segregation and oxidation) are used to seriously evaluation varied methods to quantification with admire to common matrix correction components and matrix relative sensitivity elements. state of the art matters in quantitative, harmful and non-destructive intensity profiling are mentioned with emphasis on sputter intensity profiling and on attitude resolved XPS and AES. bearing in mind preferential sputtering and electron backscattering corrections, an advent to the mixing-roughness-information intensity (MRI) version and its extensions is gifted.
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Extra info for Auger- and X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy in Materials Science: A User-Oriented Guide
5 10 5 Torr/ is used to carry out sputter depth profiling. Torr/. For 5 10 5 Torr; Lcoll is about 2 m and therefore sufficient to meet the above condition (1). Condition (2), however, requires that adsorption from the residual gas atmosphere does not generate an intolerable amount of contamination on the surface. The key to that requirement is the monolayer formation time, tm . 2]. 1). 3) In the pressure range of 10 6 Torr ( 10 4 Pa, high vacuum), one monolayer is built up in about one second, which is intolerable in surface analysis because a contamination monolayer reduces the signal of the underlying surface, depending on its energy, by typically 10–50% (see Sects.
2 X-ray satellite energies and intensities for Mg and Al sources K lines ’1;2 ’3 ’4 ’5 Mg Al Rel. intensity (%) Energy displacement (eV) Rel. 8 4:1 10:2 3:2 11:8 0:55 17:5 0:4 20:1 ’6 “ 0:45 20:0 0:3 23:4 0:5 48:5 0:55 69:7 The X-ray source produces a main emission line together with minor lines at higher binding energy (see Fig. 5]. 2). Whereas the K’5;6 and K“ lines are negligible, the K’3;4 lines possess together about 10% intensity of the main line and are about 10 eV shifted to lower binding energy.
5 dZ = 0 dZ = +1 mm 3 dZ = -1mm Intensity (107 counts / s) Fig. 5 0 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010 2020 2030 2040 2050 Kinetic Energy (eV) the sample in the direction of the analyzer axis. 5%), the CMA has a small acceptance area, that is, a low luminosity (´etendue, the product of transmission and acceptance area), and, therefore, it is not suitable for XPS. 38] achieved an improved luminosity and high resolution using spherical grids before the first entrance aperture. This double-pass CMA analyzer (DP-CMA), schematically shown in Fig.