[Article] Studies of Magnitudes in Star Clusters II. On the by Shapley H.

By Shapley H.

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The locations of the orbits of Enceladus, Tethys, Dione and Rhea are indicated by arrows labeled E, D, and R (from Connerney et al. 1983) Fig. 20 Relative plasma distribution functions between 14 and 18 Rs observed during the inbound passes of Voyager 1 and 2 at Kronian latitudes of –2ı and C18ı , respectively. Peaks appearing at a low energy per charge (10–100 V) are attributed to HC and those at high values (>800 V) are attributed to NC . Note the high temperature of the HC ions at the latitude of Voyager 2 (18ı ) and the near absence of NC ions (from Bridge et al.

This is illustrated in Fig. 20 where the evolution of the spectrum vs. mass-percharge during part of the two trajectories is displayed (Bridge et al. 1982). 20 (left) shows a clear HC and a heavier ion peak, attributed to NC since a source of nitrogen from Titan was expected in the outer magnetosphere. The heavier ion peak is absent from Fig. 20 (right) because the Voyager2 trajectory was at higher latitudes and the heavier ions are concentrated close to the equatorial plane. Richardson and Sittler (1990) were able to model the Voyager data by determining a spacecraft potential that showed the two principal ion components in the inner (<12 RS ) magnetosphere to be HC and OC .

It is evident that the scale height of oxygen ions is substantially smaller than protons closer in (Ä6 RS ) to the planet due to their large temperature anisotropy and low thermal velocity parallel to the magnetic field. Protons extend to much higher latitudes, but oxygen densities are higher than protons at the equator. Diffusive modeling by the authors shows large losses of both oxygen and protons inward of 4 RS with lifetimes of a few weeks near the equator. Their model of densities has withstood the test of time and shown to be generally consistent 32 Fig.

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