By Clement A. Ogaja
Utilized GPS for Engineers and venture Managers introduces civil engineers specially those who find themselves no longer already authorized surveyors to the elemental rules of worldwide positioning expertise (GPS). This ebook covers GPS fundamentals, together with positioning and measuring rules, ideas to enhance accuracy, and an research of reasonably cheap as opposed to high-precision structures. next chapters clarify the issues for choosing and enforcing a GPS approach after which show particular purposes of GPS in various engineering occasions, together with tracking the well-being of constructions, robotics and computing device regulate, maritime operations, fabric monitoring in huge development websites, web site keep watch over and layout, and tracking geohazards. This e-book can be necessary for all civil engineers attracted to profiting from using GPS applied sciences.
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Additional info for Applied GPS for Engineers and Project Managers
The almanac data provide only a rough satellite position; ephemeris data are needed to determine the exact position. The almanac can be used to obtain a rough indication of where the satellites are at a certain time, such as is needed for the first acquisition (detection) of the satellites or to draw satellite plots in software. Ephemeris data provide the Keplerian parameters (Fig. 001 deg per week. The calculation for the satellite position in ECEF coordinates at time t within the ephemeris week is provided in Appendix 3.
Every cycle looks like every other and the cycle phase can be ambiguous (for example, whether the signal has a O-deg phase or a 180-deg phase). Solving the ambiguity problem. Geodetic- and scientific-grade receivers start with the pseudo random code and then move on to measurements based on the carrier frequency for that code. Thus, the key to carrier phase-based GPS (“carrierphase GPS”) is to use code-phase techniques to get close to the answer. If the code measurement can be made accurately to, say, a meter, then there will be only a few wavelengths of carrier to consider for determining the actual cycle (phase) that marks the edge of the timing pulse (Fig.
In the rapid static mode. The data are postprocessed to solve the integer ambiguity, and baselines between surveyed points are calculated. In general, three other known points external to the points being calculated are used to validate the baseline measurements and to calculate absolute positions from the relative baselines. The external points (control points) are used as project control.