By François-Xavier Theillet, Pierre Chassagne (auth.), Paul Kosma, Sven Müller-Loennies (eds.)
Many pathogens and aberrant malignant cells show special carbohydrates on their floor representing beautiful ambitions for vaccine layout. enormous growth has lately been made within the identity of novel carbohydrate dependent vaccines and a multitude has reached scientific part stories. The good fortune of numerous approved carbohydrate established vaccines opposed to bacterial pathogens comparable to Haemophilus influenzae style b, Neisseria meningitidis or Streptococcus pneumoniae demonstrates their nice strength. besides the fact that, the learn of anti-carbohydrate antibodies is technically tough and partially due to low affinities and promiscuous specificity they've got no longer been medically exploited to complete strength. The learn of antibody specificities and identity of protecting carbohydrate epitopes lies on the middle of profitable vaccine layout. as well as remedy, antibodies generally function diagnostic instruments in clinical and clinical laboratories. during this surroundings excessive affinity and beautiful specificity are very important components for his or her winning use. “Anticarbohydrate Antibodies – from molecular foundation to medical software” compiles present wisdom at the immunological popularity of carbohydrates via the adaptive immune approach from a molecular viewpoint offering basic perception wanted for advancing clinically proper diagnostics and healing functions. in line with major development within the fields of glycoimmunology and structural biology lately, the e-book comprehensively reports the state of the art in defining the major parts of carbohydrate reputation via antibodies, the molecular mimicry of carbohydrate epitopes in addition to the molecular beneficial properties resulting in particular and comfortable binding modes. Backed-up through a mix of recent applied sciences to clarify structural information of carbohydrate-antibody interactions, biomedically very important carbohydrate antigens from viral, bacterial, parasite, insect and tumor cells were analyzed in in-depth experiences written via recognized specialists within the box. primary wisdom of those molecular mechanisms ultimately presents a rational foundation to enhance efficacy of carbohydrate-based vaccines and to extra refine diagnostic instruments in detection of pathogens and malignant cells.
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Extra resources for Anticarbohydrate Antibodies: From Molecular Basis to Clinical Application
Right: Structure of the B2C2*D2 trisaccharide deoxygenated at position 2 of residue C2 (Vyas et al. 2002) 1 Multidisciplinary Approaches to Study O-Antigen 19 although the minimal OS size necessary for inhibition varied from one Ab to another. Groove type combining site Abs recognizing intrachain antigenic determinants were hypothesized. In agreement with the observed differences in epitope size, LPS crossreactivities were at variance. In particular, MASF Y2, which accommodates epitopes larger than an octasaccharide had a specificity restricted to SFY.
Bacteriol Rev 35:117–148 Simmons DAR, Romanowska E (1987) Structure and biology of Shigella-flexneri O-antigens. J Med Microbiol 23:289–302 Svenson SB, Nurminen M, Lindberg AA (1979) Artificial Salmonella vaccines: O-antigenic oligosaccharide-protein conjugates induce protection against infection with Salmonella typhimurium. Infect Immun 25:863–872 Svenson SB, Lindberg AA (1981) Artificial Salmonella vaccine: Salmonella typhimurium O-antigenspecific oligosaccharide–protein conjugates elicit protective antibodies in rabbits and mice.
All the corresponding conjugates, except one, were immunogenic in mice even though they were administered in the absence of an adjuvant. Interestingly, only the conjugates that contained haptens corresponding to two or three O-Ag RUs, respectively, induced a significant anti-LPS IgG Ab response (Phalipon et al. 2006). Similar to SD1, Ab titers increased with the number of RUs per hapten and correlated to hapten density for a given OS length (Phalipon et al. 2009). The three RU hapten also showed promising immunogenicity when presented as B,T-bi-epitope liposomal constructs.