By F Benedetti; Christoph Stein; et al
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Additional info for Analgesia
49 49 49 49 50 50 51 51 51 52 52 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 C. Zöllner · C. 2 Chronic Opioid Application .
2 Physical Dependence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53 53 54 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54 Abstract Opioids are the most effective and widely used drugs in the treatment of severe pain. They act through G protein-coupled receptors. Four families of endogenous ligands (opioid peptides) are known. The standard exogenous opioid analgesic is morphine. Opioid agonists can activate central and peripheral opioid receptors. Three classes of opioid receptors (μ, δ, κ) have been identiﬁed.
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