An Atlas of Surgical Approaches to the Bones and Joints of by Donald L. Piermattei

By Donald L. Piermattei

Third variation of the vintage surgical atlas detailing operative techniques to orthopedic difficulties within the puppy and cat. insurance contains the pinnacle, vertebral column, scapula and shoulder joint, thoracic limb, pelvis and hip joint, hindlimb, and extra. It presents elevated emphasis on joint problems, besides 21 techniques and huge illustrations.

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Extra resources for An Atlas of Surgical Approaches to the Bones and Joints of the Dog and Cat 3rd Edition

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Cardiac silhouette changes associated with vessel and chamber enlargement in the dorsoventral radiographic projection. Aa, Aortic arch; PaS, main pulmonary artery; LAa, left atrial auricular appendage; LV, left ventricle; RV, right ventricle; RA, right atrium. 4 LA RA LV 3 2 RV Abdomen 1 Trachea f0170 CVC Figure 2-17. Schematic representation of radiographic signs associated with right- heart enlargement in the lateral projection. (1) Dorsal lifting of apex from sternum. (2) Increased sternal contact of cranial cardiac margin.

The angle between the thoracic spine axis and the trachea is diminished to the point of becoming parallel. (2) Convex enlargement of the caudodorsal cardiac margin without a “right-angle” conformation characteristic for left atrial enlargement. (3) Increased sternal contact of cranial margin. (4) Dorsal elevation and enlargement of the caudal vena cava (CVC). The cardiac silhouette takes on a smoothly contoured circular conformation with obliteration of normal cardiac contour. • Fluid overload: overhydration • Toxicity • Systemic shock • Hypersensitization • Drowning • Increased bronchial markings in some cases s0650 • Pleural effusion • In the dog, this can occur only in very progresp0230 sive or severe forms of left-heart failure; this usually indicates early concurrent left- and right-heart failure.

Cardiac Conduction and Genesis of Waveforms • The function of the cardiac conduction system is to coordinate the contraction and relaxation of the four cardiac chambers (Figures 3-6 and 3-7). • For each cardiac cycle, the initial impulse originates in the sinoatrial (SA) node located in the wall of the right atrium near the entrance of the cranial vena 52 Section I Diagnosis of Heart Disease Box 3-1  Lead Systems Used in Canine and Feline Electrocardiography Bipolar limb leads I: Right thoracic limb (−) compared with left tho­ racic limb (+) II: Right thoracic limb (−) compared with left pelvic limb (+) III: Left thoracic limb (−) compared with left pelvic limb (+) Augmented unipolar limb leads aVR: Right thoracic limb (+) compared with average voltage of left thoracic limb and left pelvic limb (−) aVL: Left thoracic limb (+) compared with average voltage of right thoracic limb and left pelvic limb (−) aVF: Left pelvic limb (+) compared with average ­voltage of right thoracic limb and left thoracic limb (−) Unipolar precordial chest leads plus exploring electrode CV5RL (rV2): Right fifth intercostal space near the sternum CV6LL (V2): Left sixth intercostal space near the sternum CV6LU (V4): Left sixth intercostal space near the costochondral junction V10: Over the dorsal process of the seventh thoracic vertebra Base-apex bipolar lead Record in lead I position on ECG machine with leads placed as follows LA electrode over left sixth intercostal space at costosternal junction RA electrode over spine of right scapula near the vertebra cava.

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