By A.E. Shilov, Georgiy B. Shul'pin, Alexander E. Shilov
This monograph is dedicated to the activation and diverse differences of saturated hydrocarbons (alkanes), i.e. reactions observed via the C--H and C--C bond cleavage. Alkanes are the most parts of oil and average fuel, and hence are the valuable feedstocks for the chemical undefined. nevertheless, those ingredients are recognized to be the least reactive natural compounds. distinct consciousness is paid to the lately came across alkane activations in the presence of steel complexes, that are defined in additional element. as well as the reactions of saturated hydrocarbons that are the major subject of this e-book, the activation of C--H bonds in arenes or even olefins and acetylenes are thought of. The monograph might be worthwhile not just if you have an interest in the activation of alkanes and different hydrocarbons by way of steel complexes, but in addition for experts in homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysis, petrochemistry, and organometallic chemistry. a few elements of the monograph can be of curiosity for experts in inorganic and natural chemistry, theoretical chemistry, biochemistry or even biology, and additionally in case you paintings within the petrochemical undefined, commercial natural synthesis and biotechnology.
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Extra resources for Activation and Catalytic Reactions of Saturated Hydrocarbons in the Presence of Metal Complexes
A theoretical consideration of a model system (by method INDO UHF) sh owed that the stabilization energy of this complex at the equilibrium distance is kcal . One may suggest that complexes of such type are intermediate species in alkane reactions with radicals. 30 CHAPTER II (Refs. p. A. HALOGENATION Halogenation and especially chlorination of alkanes is a very important process as it gives halogenated alkyls . If the temperature of chain radical chlorination of methane is high, and time of contact between hydrocarbon and chlorine is short, in addition to chlorinated hydrocarbons, large amounts of ethane or ethylene and hydrogen are formed (Benson’s process ).
Summing up both the equations we get and the hydrocarbon oxidation rate at early stages where the rate of branching may be neglected will be The low O–O bond energy causes the rate of radical formation in reactions 3 and 3’ in the process of hydroperoxide accumulation, to exceed the chain initiation rate, which is the reason for the total reaction rate increase during the process of hydroperoxide accumulation. The reaction rate will stop increasing when the hydroperoxide accumulation rate via reaction 2 becomes equal to the rate of its decomposition into radicals via reactions 3 and 3’.
Ion metalates arenes similarly to palladium(II). However, unlike palladium(II) ' complexes of Pt(IV) are stable compounds and have been isolated . The ion easily platinates arenes under the action of light  (or ) giving the first example of photo-electrophilic substitution of arenes. Under the same conditions, alkanes are dehydrogenated to afford complexes of platinum(II). , [4d, 15]). Attention is being especially concentrated nowadays on biological oxidation and its chemical models.