By Richard V. Tuson
Writer: Philadelphia, P. Blakiston, Son
Read Online or Download A Pharmacopoeia Including the Outlines of Materia Medica and Therapeutics for the Use of Practitioners and Students of Veterinary Medicine PDF
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Additional resources for A Pharmacopoeia Including the Outlines of Materia Medica and Therapeutics for the Use of Practitioners and Students of Veterinary Medicine
Ferreira Hyperalgesia and Classic Inflammatory Mediators P rimary sensory neurons (PSN) become sensitized during inflammation (hyperalgesia) and as a consequence the nociceptors are able to transduce innocuous stimuli into what is perceived as pain by man or manifested as a characteristic nociceptive behaviors by animals. Classic inflammatory mediators are endogenous substances of low molecular weight, detected in inflammatory exudates. Their pharmacological effects mimic cardinal inflammatory symptoms.
Biphasic effects o intracerebroventricular interleukin-1b on mechanical nociception in the rat. Eur J Pharmacol 1996; 300:59-65. 118. Bianchi M, Sacerdote P, Ricciardi-Castagnoli P et al. Central effects of tumor necrosis factor-a and interleukin-1a on nociceptive thresholds and spontaneous locomotor activity. Neurosci Lett 1992; 148:76-80. 20 Immune Mechanisms of Pain and Analgesia 119. Adams JU, Bussiere JL, Geller EB et al. Pyrogenic doses of intracerebroventricular interleukin-1 did not induce analgesia in the rat hot-plate or cold-water tail-flick tests.
However, it should be pointed out that the type of inflammatory stimuli used has a definitive effect upon the array of cytokines released. For example, nerve growth factor (NGF) and leukotrienes play much more important roles in complete Freund’s adjuvant arthritis (CFA) than in carrageenin- or bacterial endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute hyperalgesia (see below). Peripheral Hyperalgesia Induced by Cytokines Five cytokines have been systematically studied to determine their hyperalgesic effect as well as their local participation in the inflammatory reactions: IL-1β, IL-1α, TNF-α, IL-6 and NGF.