8th Automotive Materials Conference by William Smothers

By William Smothers

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Semiconductor materials experience an alteration of crystalline structure with applied stress, producing what is called the piezoresistive effect (change in resistance). The piezoresistive effect offers a greater change of resistance than previous metal type strain gages at some sacrifice in resistive temperature coefficient. To solve some materials matching problems described previously, a solidstate piezoresistive silicon diaphragm pressure sensor is used (Fig. 7). In such a sensor, strain-sensitive elements are diffused into a silicon wafer.

Sufficient literature is available for more thorough design considerations and should be consulted. Simplified displacement equations for flat diaphragms and capsules are shown in Fig. 3 . Table 111 lists comparative flat diaphragm deflections using various force-summing materials. Barometric and manifold pressures must be measured relative to an unchanging lower pressure, namely a vacuum. In each of these pressure sensor designs the force-summing element and displacement must be in reference to, or a deviation from, a true or hard vacuum.

Daniels and R . , 4th ed.. , New York. 1975. pp. 198-99. ’ ” ~ 277 --- lm, I M "C -- - _ - - - -6_0 '_C - -. -. 6W"C ---. -. I I I - 6MI w - s I \ BM- d \ B B a- I 200 Fig. 1. Theoretical voltage curvesfor an ideal oxygen sensor. - 0. Sensor Temperature I 3 I 14 ~ AIR-FUEL RATIO I I5 I 16 Fig. 2. Typical measured voltage curves for an actual oxygen sensor. Exha ust Gas El ect rode pOi(exh1, Pt 1 Air Reference Electrode Stabilized Zr02 1 Pt, p02(ref) L Fig. 3, Electrochemical reactions corresponding to an oxygen concentration cell.

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